Keeping up with the latest Health & Wellness Coaching research is a huge task. The following article, written by Fiona Cosgrove the CEO of Wellness Coaching Australia and an HCANZA Board Member, was originally posted on WCA’s website in March 2020 and gives us direction for some research that this Association may become involved in. At the moment in Australia, the health care system (through some Medicare rebates) recognises the benefits of Shared Medical Appointment conducted by doctors in their role as experts. The model could be strengthened and positive outcomes increased if Health & Wellness Coaches, who assist patients embed longterm behaviour change into their lives, were to become part of the collaborative care team working within these groups.
What does Group Health and Wellness Coaching have to offer?
The growing amount of research on health and wellness coaching, delivered in a person to person setting suggests that coaching can be an effective intervention for many lifestyle-related diseases. (Sforzo et al, 2017, 2019). But can health and wellness coaching delivered in a group offer a valuable contribution to the field and if so, what are its strengths and what are the challenges facilitators might face?
The literature on this method of delivery is much less advanced although several papers articulate a similarly positive effect and, in some ways, a format that can potentially benefit the participants in quite unique ways to the one on one conversation most commonly held.
In 2013, Armstrong et al reported on seven programs that used a group coaching approach throughout the United States – either by telephone or in-person and using both professional and peer coaches. Results showed a wide range of positive outcomes including a sense of satisfaction and increased self-efficacy, some change in lifestyle behaviours, reduced pain and in one program, gains in facilitator’s listening and goal-setting skills.
In 2019, Yocum and Lawson reported on a workplace group health coaching initiative that involved 8 employees in leadership roles over a five-session program. Outcomes showed “positive change and growth” with reductions in stress, increased self-awareness of self-identity, values and desired goals. Again, facilitators reported similar personal gains.
A case study followed an integrative group health coaching experience with four participants over four sessions and found that even in this short time period, group members experienced an improved sense of well-being. (Schultz and Lawson, 2020.)
The above suggests that group health coaching can provide an alternative, lower-cost option for client engagement with potentially additional benefits. Out of the reports cited the following strengths were noted for group interventions:
- Participants experienced a sense of community and a great sense of responsibility to follow through on commitments
- Less isolation
- Learning from others’ experiences
- Enhanced creativity and courage to try something new
- Authentic communication and support
- The opportunity to provide streamlined education or information which may be harder to deliver in a one on one setting
- The use of tools such as mindfulness and other stress reduction strategies delivered in a group setting
- Personal growth and understanding of facilitators
- Sense of cohesion
Of course, strengths are also tempered by challenges and some of these included:
- Logistics of bringing people together and managing their availability
- Whether the group should be a closed group or open for people to “drop-in” (which would work against any cohesion they might have experienced meeting with the same people each session).
- The need for group guidelines, ideally created by the group members
- Recognition that group work is not for everyone – some may not feel comfortable sharing and others may be disruptive. The facilitator has to be skilled in managing group dynamics.
What was of interest was that all members joined the program with the aim of improving “well-being” which can sometimes seem an elusive or vague outcome for many.
One program broke down the dimensions into health relationships, security, purpose, community and environment (Schultz and Lawson, 2020.)
In the work-based group, participants developed themes which were improving life/work balance, developing stress management strategies, increasing self-care, focus on healthy living, desire for accountability and lasting change and learning tools to pass on to other staff.
Information on the seven group programs showed that the health issues that were targeted included general health and well-being, survivors of stroke, chronic pain, stress, and other chronic medical conditions. (Armstrong et al, 2019.)
Although there is a great need for further research into many various aspects of group coaching programs, these articles suggest that it is definitely a promising way of using the principles of coaching to support positive change.
Armstrong, C., Wolever, R. Q., Manning, L., Elam, R., Moore, M., Frates, E. P., Duskey, H., Anderson, C., Curtis, R. L., Masemer, S., & Lawson, K. (2013). Group Health Coaching: Strengths, Challenges, and Next Steps. Global Advances in Health and Medicine, 2(3), 95-102. https://doi.org/10.7453/gahmj.2013.019
Schultz, C. S., Stuckey, C. M., & Lawson, K. (2019). Group health coaching for the underserved: a case report. Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice, 13(1), 3-7. https://doi.org/10.1080/17521882.2019.1656658
Sforzo, G. A., Kaye, M. P., Todorova, I., Harenberg, S., Costello, K., Cobus-Kuo, L., Faber, A., Frates, E., & Moore, M. (2017). Compendium of the Health and Wellness Coaching Literature. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 12(6), 436-447. https://doi.org/10.1177/1559827617708562
Sforzo, G. A., Kaye, M. P., Harenberg, S., Costello, K., Cobus-Kuo, L., Rauff, E., Edman, J. S., Frates, E., & Moore, M. (2019). Compendium of Health and Wellness Coaching: 2019 Addendum. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 155982761985048. https://doi.org/10.1177/1559827619850489
Yocum, S., & Lawson, K. (2019). Health Coaching Case Report: Optimizing Employee Health and Wellbeing in Organizations. Journal of Values-Based Leadership. https://doi.org/10.22543/0733.122.1266